cuatro Place and you may thermal attributes away from extremely scorching summertimes (EHS)

cuatro Place and you may thermal attributes away from extremely scorching summertimes (EHS)

4.1 EHS throughout 1951–1980

The only EHS covering at least three stations during the first half of the 60-year study period occurred in 1972. Observed at 16 stations, it covered vast areas of western Russia and some adjacent areas to the north (Fig. 1). Indeed, this exceptionally hot summer was spatially the second largest during the study period and in the northern half of the area examined it was the hottest (Table 4). During all three summer months, the average temperature was above the long-term average, but August was the hottest. In the central part of the area, this was the hottest August of the entire period. The temperature difference between the long-term average and the temperature of the particular season ranged from 2.3 to 2.7 °C in the far north, to 3.6–3.9 °C in the far south, to 4.5 °C at Tambov (t ? t av + 3?). Days with a temperature higher than 30 °C were recorded even in the north, where they were very rare in other years, while in the south there were 50 such days (two to three times more than the average). In the south, there were also days with a maximum temperature greater than 35 °C. Throughout the area there were cases of hot nights lijepe Kolumbijska Еѕene, i.e., 24-h days with a minimum temperature higher than 20 °C, including for example six such days in Arhangel’sk (compared to 0.4 on average) and 17 in Voronez (normally 2.6).

This type of strange thermal defects into the western Russia had been as a result of a quasi-stationary anticyclonic circulation (Bardin 2007). Previous search (Zveryaev mais aussi al. 2012) implies that summer time regarding 1972 is characterised from the confident phase of North Atlantic Oscillation.

cuatro.2 EHS through the 1981–1990

This new exceptional june on the season safeguarded the fresh central and you may eastern parts of European Russia (Fig. 2). The new EHS was seen at the eight stations, such as the easternmost Ivdel’ (where it had been the only like summer inside several months) and you can Ekaterinburg. In Kirov and you will Perm, this is the greatest summer of several months. An average sky temperature over the area is actually higher than the new long-title mediocre because of the dos.5–step 3.step three °C. The warmth try greater than the newest a lot of time-identity mediocre in every around three summer season, however, August is actually the only real excessively sizzling hot times and just at 50 % of all stations (like the most well known of one’s entire period inside the Ivdel’, Ekaterinburg and you will Perm), if you are June and you may July didn’t meet the standards. There is a number of days that have a max temperature greater than 30 °C, particularly in new south (20–25, on average 9–11). Just about southwest an element of the area, there have been months that have minimal heat surpassing 20 °C (Table 5).

Summer time regarding 1988 try exceedingly sizzling hot and you will, like in 1981, heavens heat defects secure central and you can east areas of Eu Russia, whilst affected area was smaller connected with just five stations (Fig. 2). Inside three northern stations, this was the latest, plus happening away from Kotlas, plus the only EHS regarding studies period. The essential difference between an average long-label and EHS climate varied away from 2.step three to three.step one °C along side town. July turned-out including hot (in the some station the latest of your own period). Simply inside Ekaterinburg performed the fresh temperatures stop lacking conference new criteria in just about any of one’s weeks. There are over 10 months with an optimum temperatures significantly more than 31 °C after all brand new stations, and in the new southern area, the amount are almost 20 (versus anywhere between three and half a dozen typically). Just separated instances of days that have the absolute minimum temperatures more than 20 °C had been registered on southern of your own affected area (Dining table 5).

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